The Life of
|In 1846, Franklin McDaniel
was born on a small farm near Somerset, Kentucky. He was
the eighth-born child of Enoch and Elizabeth (Sawyers)
McDaniel. Enoch's father, William McDaniel,
had been born in Virginia in the 1787. William's father
was Spencer McDaniel Sr. who was born, perhaps, in
1761. Some say that Spencer Sr. was born in
Virginia while others believe that he came from Ireland.
William's mother was Elizabeth (Randall) McDaniel
(born 1765?). William's brothers and sisters were Spencer
Jr. (born 1782) Polly, born 1783, Elizabeth,
and John. In the late 1790's the family decided to
leave Virginia and head west. Most likely at the side of
pack animal pulling a wagon, Spencer Sr., his wife
Elizabeth, and their five children walked over the
Appalachian Mountains to seek a new life in Kentucky. At
that time, all settlers traveling west to Kentucky used
the "Wilderness Road" that had been blazed by Daniel
Boone in 1775. Although very few white men had seen
the land beyond the mountains before 1775, by 1800 over
200,000 restless pioneers had used the "Wilderness
Road" to enter Kentucky and points beyond. The route
began in western Virginia, near the city of Abingdon, and
passed through the Cumberland Gap, which is on the border
between Virginia and Kentucky. In 1800, the rugged trail
was barely passable to wagons. Families could progress no
more than a few miles each day. After crossing through
the Cumberland Gap, the McDaniel family eventually
settled in Pulaski County, Kentucky, which is about 80
miles northwest of the Gap. The Spencer McDaniel Sr.
family was among the earliest families to settle in this
region. Settlers in Kentucky provided for their families
by farming and hunting wild game. In those days, turkey,
deer, bear and buffalo were still plentiful in Kentucky.
So were Indians and tension with the settlers. The region
was rapidly settled; the population of Kentucky which was
less than 70,000 in 1792 had grown to over 400,000 by
1810- 20% of which were slaves.
William soon grew into a young man and, at age 22, married Elizabeth Weaver on Jan 12, 1809. The couple had a son born around 1810 and named him Enoch. Their son grew to manhood in Pulaski County, Kentucky, and married Elizabeth Sawyer Jan 12th of 1830. The couple worked their land and raised a large family. Enoch and Elizabeth had seven children before Franklin was born in 1846.
The first census in which Franklin's name appears is the 1850 Federal Census. This census indicates that in 1850 he was three years old and was living with his parents and five brothers and three sisters
On a farm in Pulaski County, Kentucky. Franklin's great-uncle, Spencer Jr., had moved his family from Pulaski County up to Washington Township of Morgan County, back in 1835. Spencer's wife was named Martha and they had eight children. It is possible that Uncle Spencer Jr. and Martha had been encouraging Enoch and Elizabeth to do likewise and move to Morgan County, for in 1853, Enoch and Elizabeth did move the family north to Washington Township, Morgan County, Indiana. At the time of the move, Franklin was six or seven years old. This family of eleven people settled into a log cabin on the banks of a stream called Jordan Creek, which was located in an area known as Cold Spring Hollow. His father, Enoch, made a living raising crops on their small farm.
Ten years later, Franklin's name was again mentioned in the Federal Census. The 1860 Census indicated that he was 13 years old, still living with his parents and two brothers and three sisters on his father's farm in Cold Spring Hollow in Morgan County, Indiana. The farm, at that time, had an estate value of $800. The family personal property was valued at $200. Two girls had been added to the household since the 1850 Census-- Martha, in born 1851, and Elizabeth, born in 1853. [At age 21, Elizabeth would die tragically from burns in 1875. Note 1875 newspaper report below] The youngest of the family, Harvey, born in 1856, for unclear reasons, does not appear in the 1860 or 1870 census.
By 1860, Franklin's three older brothers and older sister had moved away. The oldest at home was John R., age 20. John would join the 7th Indiana Volunteers Infantry in March of 1861 and would fight in the battle at Philippi, West Virginia, on June 3, 1861. He died two weeks after the battle at age 21.
At age 17, on March 22, 1864, Franklin McDaniel was enrolled at Newport Indiana as a Private in Company K of the 129th Regiment of Indiana Volunteers. He was soon to take part in an immense military operation crucial to preserving the Union: the Atlanta Campaign. Making preparations near Chattanooga, Tennessee, for the advance to Atlanta was General Sherman's Army of the Military District of the Mississippi, which was comprised of over 98,000 men. This great Army was divided into three wings. The largest wing was The Army of the Cumberland, led by Major General George Thomas, and consisted of 60,000 men. A second wing, The Army of Tennessee, headed by 32- year-old Major General James McPherson, was comprised of 25,000 men. The smallest wing was the 14,000 man Army of the Ohio, which was under the command of Major General John Schofield. It was the Ohio to which Franklin's 129th was assigned. The Ohio wing of Sherman's Army was making preparations for the Atlanta Campaign near the town of Charleston, Tennessee, about 30 miles northwest of Chattanooga.
After being ferried across the across the Ohio River from Indiana, the 129th probably traveled by rail from Louisville, Kentucky, to Nashville, Tennessee. The final leg of the journey, from Nashville to reach the Army of the Ohio's campsite near Chattanooga, required a 128-mile march, which took from 10 to 14 days.
Meanwhile, under the command of General Joseph E. Johnston, 60,000 Confederate troops had been deployed to northern Georgia with the mission of driving back the Union advance. Thirty to forty thousand of these Confederate men were destined to be war casualties. Sherman's Army would likewise suffer thirty to forty thousand casualties.
On May 3, 1864, Sherman ordered all three wings to move out toward their objectives in northern Georgia, and the Atlanta Campaign was underway. Franklin found himself on the march with General Schofield's Army of the Ohio heading directly toward the enemy's heavily fortified positions around Dalton. His knapsack was probably loaded with clothing, a blanket, half tent, several days' rations, ammunition and a rifle. The Ohio was the left-most of three wings advancing on northern Georgia. On the first day the Ohio marched 10 miles from Charleston, Tennessee, to Cleveland, Tennessee. The next day they arrived at the town of Red Clay, on the Tennessee-Georgia state line, after a 15-mile march. After two days at Red Clay, the Ohio advanced to a position north of Dalton and east of Rocky Face Ridge after another 15-mile march.
Franklin's first engagement with
the Rebel army was at Rocky Face Ridge May 8-10, 1864.
The battle was a Union victory. As they retreated to the
south, the Confederate Army set fire to buildings, crops,
or any materials, which might be of use to the Union
Army. Franklin next marched with his wing to the
town of Resaca where Rebels charged his brigade with
bayonets. The pitched battle continued for two days;
however, by May 15th the Rebels began to fall back. A
soldier from another Indiana regiment in Franklin's
brigade recalled his experience at Resaca:
As the Confederates retreated, The Army of Ohio continued its push south, passing through Cartersville, Georgia. From Cartersville, the Ohio continued forward to the railroad bridge over the Etowah River. Once south of the river the Army of the Ohio was involved in skirmishing with the enemy but did not engage in any of the heavy fighting that involved the other two divisions at nearby New Hope Church. In June of 1864, the Army of the Ohio switched its position from the left to the right of the other two Union divisions. The Rebel defensive line at Kennesaw Mountain halted the Ohio's advance. During the Battle at Kennesaw Mountain the Army of the Ohio was positioned to secure the right flank of the other two union divisions and was not engaged in the battle on Kennesaw Mountain. Nevertheless, the Ohio was repeatedly attacked by the Rebel corps of General John Bell Hood. These attacks proved costly for the Rebel army, which suffered over 1,000 casualties during these attacks. In contrast, General John M. Schofield's Army of the Ohio lost fewer than 300 men. The total causalities of the Army of the Ohio for the month of June were about 700 men or approximently 5% of the fighting force. According to his granddaughter, Doris McDaniel, one of Franklin's roles was to carry the American flag on the battlefield. Franklin was a member of the 129th's Company K of which about 10% died during the War. It has also been passed down that Franklin had become a close friend with soldier named Luford. Luford was killed in combat; Franklin grieved the loss of his friend and never forgot him. According to memoirs of soldiers who fought in the Atlanta campaign, May and June were rainy months; the streams were swollen and the mud was deep. In the chaos of war men easily became separated from company supply wagons and would go hungry. Water and food was contaminated and typhoid was widespread. The deafening sound of the cannonballs exploding and the whizzing-hum of rifle shells passing overhead were terrifying. Soldiers often worked all night making bridges, or burying the dead in unmarked two-foot deep graves. Those assigned retrieve the injured were witness to hundreds of mutilating wounds and unspeakable suffering. Soldiers on both sides were wet, dirty, hungry, exhausted, and often ill.
Three days after the battle at Kennesaw Mountain, on June 30, 1864, Franklin McDaniel was reported sick. According to military records, he suffered from "diarrhea, shock, and general nervous prostration." He remained in an infirmary at Marietta until November, when he was transferred to a military hospital in Nashville, Tennessee. He remained hospitalized there for the next seven months. In the Civil War, illness was the rule rather than the exception. Dysentery with diarrhea affected 78% of the soldiers annually. Typhoid, malaria, smallpox, measles, mumps, scurvy and tuberculosis killed twice as many men as battle deaths. By most estimates, 164,00 Confederates and 250,000 Federals died of disease during the war.
On June 7, 1865, two months after the war had ended, Franklin was still not well enough to return to regular duty and was transferred to the 5th Regiment of Veteran Reserve Corp, a.k.a. the "Invalid Corps." The Invalid Corps, later called the Veteran Reserve Corp, consisted of men who were too physically or mentally ill to perform frontline duty but not completely incapacitated. The 5th Regiment of Veteran Reserve Corp was assigned to the Camp Morton prison camp in Indianapolis. During the previous year, over 1,600 of 3,700 Confederate prisoners had frozen, starved or died of disease at Camp Morton. By the time of Franklin's arrival in June of '65, however, exchanges of prisoners between North and South had cleared the camp of Rebel prisoners. Franklin was discharged 10 weeks later on August 25, 1865. The war's end allowed Franklin to pass the next two years with his family in Morgan County.
Franklin McDaniel re-enlisted in the United States Army on the 12th of September 1867, at Cincinnati, Ohio, and was assigned to Company C of the 21st Regiment of the Infantry. He was 20 or 21 years old. From Ohio he was sent to Virginia (then the First Military District) where he would spend the next 19 months. He was paid $16.00 a month. The regiment was engaged in a number of duties pertaining to reconstruction. Companies were assigned to temporary camps in different parts of the state. On October 1, 1868, Private Franklin was promoted to the rank of corporal. In order to protect new American settlers in the West, the 21st Regiment was ordered in March of 1869 to eight different stations in the Arizona territory. The following month, on the twelfth of April, a regiment of 1,180 enlisted men departed from Richmond by military train and arrived in Omaha, Nebraska, on April 17. On May 4th, 1869, the soldiers departed from Omaha traveling on the nation's first transcontinental railway, which was in its last days of construction. Six days later the Regiment arrived at Promontory Point some six miles west of Ogden, Utah, and was present at the celebration of the "driving of the golden spike," symbolizing the completion of the most ambitious engineering project in railroad history. The Regimental band played for the celebration. The military train then proceeded to San Francisco and camped at the Presidio (garrison) of San Francisco, which faces the Golden Gate inlet of the San Francisco Bay. They remained in San Francisco until June of 1869. From this point, the ten companies of the 21st were put en route for their stations in the Arizona territory. Approximately eight months of service remained of Franklin's 3-year term of enlistment. He was a member of Company C, which was assigned to Camp Verde, in central Arizona. The men arrived at Camp Verde on August 27, 1869. During the Civil War the territory had been virtually abandoned to the Indians, and settlers of the area had been subject to widespread murder. Indians greatly outnumbered Army troops. The soldiers of the 21st Regiment became actively employed in scouting after hostile Indians, escorting United States mail-wagons, building wagon roads, and erecting public buildings. The heat was unbearable and soldiers were often clad in only shorts and buckskin moccasins. The soldiers would march day after day, hundreds of miles. Many men deserted. One soldier described his post as "the most thoroughly Godforsaken post of all . . ." Clashes with Indians were frequent. As an example of the dangers, two months before Franklin had arrived, two soldiers from Camp Bowie had been captured and tortured to death. Near Dragoon Springs, Arizona, about a month after Franklin's arrival, Apaches under Conchise massacred a detail of men from D Company escorting mail. Franklin remained at Camp Verde until his discharge on February 12, 1870. He had served three years.
The 1870 Census indicated that Franklin was back home in Morgan County, living with his parents Enoch and Elizabeth, both age 58, and his sister Clarinda, age 20. Also living in the cabin was Martha, age 18, and Elizabeth, 16. At that time Franklin was 23 years of age and helped his father raise crops.
The next important milestone in Franklin's life was his marriage in December of 1872 to 20-year-old Mary Ellen Stephens. Before the marriage could take place it was necessary for Mary Ellen to obtain a divorce from Peter Stephens. Stephens had disappeared years before and had presumably abandoned Mary Ellen. Franklin was 26. The couple moved into a small two-room frame house, which Franklin had purchased with money he had saved while in the Army. He earned his living by tending the small farm and hauling logs to nearby sawmills. Franklin's parents, Enoch and Elizabeth, lived a short distance away in the log cabin. After his father Enoch passed away around 1875, his mother, Elizabeth, moved into the frame house with Franklin and his family.
By 1879 three children had been born to Franklin and Mary Ellen: John, Sophia, and Hoag. In that year, the family decided to move west to Spickard, Missouri. The wagon trip took three weeks. The family, however, was dissatisfied with Missouri and returned to Morgan County, Indiana, after about one year. They lived briefly in Ray Township near Paragon, Indiana. According to the 1880 Federal Census, Franklin and his family then resided in Ray Township. He had been unemployed for seven months. His mother, Elizabeth, was 68 and could neither read nor write and neither could his wife Mary according to the Census. Children in the home included John Jefferson, 6 1/2, Sophia, 4, Hoag, 2, and Luford, age 6 months. The family was anxious to return to their friends and family in Coldspring Hollow; however, tenants occupied their two-room frame house. Once the tenants left, the family returned to their home. Their last child, Susie, was born there in July of 1882.
Franklin played the violin and taught his son John to play when he was only 6. He promised his son that if he would learn to play a tune before he turned seven that he would give John the violin. Young John met the challenge and learned to play a simple tune. True to his word, Franklin gave his son the violin, but not until John married 16 years later.
No grandchildren of his has ever
mentioned to me that Franklin had been the subject
of an insanity hearing , nevertheless, on June 10, 1884, D.P.
Kennedy, M.D. made the following statement to the
Court regarding the sanity of Franklin:
James Neal, a neighbor who had known Franklin for 20 years, gave the following answers to questions asked on the Record of Inquest as to the Insanity of Enoch F. McDaniel.
Doctor J.J. Johnson
made the following statement:
Franklin was admitted to the Indiana Hospital for the Insane in Indianapolis on June 14, 1884. His admitting diagnosis was "mania" and "been drinking heavily." What types of treatment did Franklin most likely receive? The dispensing of watered down alcohol and the use of restraint chairs and cribs was in the process of being abolished during the mid 1880's. No useful medications for depression or psychosis existed. I assume that the only "treatment" that Franklin received then was being allowed to tend the crops on the vegetable farm, which was on the hospital grounds. He remained hospitalized for 25 months until his release on July 12, 1886. At the time of discharge his condition was listed as "cured."
Three years later, in 1889, at age 43, Franklin applied for an army pension, stating that he was 3/4 disabled due to illnesses he suffered during the Civil War. Dr. Kennedy's statement above hints that he had been turned down for an Army pension in 1884 and that Franklin was frustrated in his effort to convince officials of his disability. Can modern concepts of mental disorders be applied to make connections between (1) Franklin's 12-month hospitalization at age 18 during the Civil War for "diarrhea, and nervous prostration,"(2) his alcohol abuse, (3) his profound depression with hallucinations in 1884 and (4) his statement in 1889 that he was 3/4 disabled? Facts are too sketchy to be certain, but one possibility is that during the Atlanta campaign, Franklin, weakened by dysentery, was terrified and horrified by the mutilation and carnage that surrounded him, not only on the battlefield but later in the makeshift hospitals where he was a patient. The trauma and stress to which he was exposed at age 17 may have resulted in a permanent nervous condition referred to today as post-traumatic stress disorder. Persons with post-traumatic stress disorder have an increased rate of alcohol abuse and are more likely to experience bouts of depression.
A few years ago, a researcher, Eric T. Dean Jr., examined the medical records of 291 Civil War veterans who were admitted to the Indiana Hospital for the Insane between 1861 and 1920. He concluded that in 40% of cases studied, a clear connection existed between a soldier's military experience and his eventual mental instability. Regardless of how clear the connection was between Franklin's military experience and his episodes of mental instability, in 1889 he finally received good news: At last his pension was approved. He was awarded the amount of $12 to be paid on a quarterly basis.
After returning home from the Indiana Hospital for the Insane, Franklin resumed drinking and was a frequent visitor at Martinsville taverns. One tavern story, which has been passed down, occurred in 1898. Franklin at age 52 was drinking at a bar on the Martinsville Square with his 26-year-old son John when a local roughneck, Ben Johnson, began to pick a fight with the older, smaller Franklin. As the largest and most powerful man in town, Ben Johnson felt free to bully or insult anyone he pleased. John, however, stood up to Ben Johnson and the two men began to scuffle, resulting in a stack of metal wash basins crashing to the floor.
"Whee hoo! Fight!" exclaimed the elder Franklin and John invited Ben Johnson to continue the scrape in the alley in back of the tavern. Being much larger and much stronger, Ben was happy to oblige. A certain precaution, however, had been taken to offset Ben's unfair size advantage. Waiting in the alley and primed for action was younger brother Hoag, armed with an iron stovetop plate. Ben walked into the alley and bam! He was immediately struck with the heavy plate, which resulted in a large triangular flap of scalp being torn loose from his head. Ben stoically repositioned the flap to its rightful position and continued fighting as if nothing had happened. John and Hoag, fearing involvement of the authorities, fled the scene. Ben Johnson was taken to the local hospital where his wound was repaired with several sutures. John escaped to his home while Hoag jumped on a passing freight train heading to Indianapolis where he joined the Army and was soon shipped out to the Philippines. Several days after the melee John paid Ben's sizable doctor bill and the Johnson family considered the squabble settled. From that day forward, Ben never again insulted or bullied Franklin or any of his sons.
Franklin McDaniel died on a Saturday evening, February 3, 1900, in a hardware store on South Main Street in Martinsville. The cause of death was alcohol poisoning. The sad facts of his final day are recorded in detail in the in the obituary that accompanies the article. That evening Franklin's nephew Bill Scales and Harry Burleigh rode from town on horseback to the McDaniel farm where they found his son John unharnessing horses. They delivered the news of his father's death. John hitched his horses to the wagon and headed for the hardware store to retrieve his father's corpse. He did not return home until well after midnight. The February night was very cold and the blankets John had placed around his father's body had frozen solid during the long trip from town. He worked the remainder of the night constructing a coffin of wood. Franklin McDaniel was laid to rest in The Liberty Christian Church Cemetery on the following Tuesday. He was 53.
[Mark McDaniel found the obituary below in the Thursday, February, 8th, 1900 edition of The Republican newspaper.]
[It not fitting to let
the writer of the above obituary have the last word on
the life of Franklin McDaniel. Without men like Franklin
McDaniel, peace in the western territories could not
have been established. Without men like Franklin
McDaniel, the Union could not have been preserved. He
served in these causes under the harshest and most brutal
of conditions. He did so at great risk to his health and
personal safety. Franklin McDaniel merits the
recognition and gratitude of the community he served. ]
Generation No. 1
1. SPENCER McDANIEL1, Sr. (1761? -1841) and ELIZABETH (RANDALL) McDANIEL (1765? -?)
P.97B-342 ENOCH McDANIEL, AGE 42? BIRTHPLACE: KY, FARMER, ,$400, ELIZABETH 42? KY STEPHEN G. 19 KY MARY J. 17 KY JAMES H. 15 KY, STUDENT HARMON R. 13 KY, " JOHN R. 10 KY " SORILDA 06 KY " DANIEL 04 KY " FRANKLIN 03 KY CLARINDA 01 KY
ENOCH McDANIEL 50 ESTATE VALUE, $800, PERSONAL, $250 ELIZABETH 50 JOHN 20 SURELDA 18 DANIEL 17 FRANKLIN 13 CLARINDA 11 MARTHA 09 ELIZABETH 07 [DIED 1875, AGE 22 OF BURNS]
ENOCH McDANIEL 58 FARMER ELIZABETH 58 KEEPING HOUSE FRANKLIN 23 FARMER CLARINDA 20 AT HOME MARTHA 18 AT HOME ELIZABETH 16 AT HOME
FRANKLIN McDANIEL, 33, LABORER, UNEMPLOYED, 7 MONTHS MARY ELLEN 28?, CANNOT WRITE, KEEPS HOUSE JOHN JEFFERSON 06 SOPHIA 04 HOGUM JAMES 02 LUFORD 03 MONTHS ELIZABETH 68, CANNOT WRITE
CHARACTER. VERY GOOD,
Had modern techniques been available, Franklin
would have been properly detoxified, would have received
follow-up counseling perhaps prescribed Antabuse to help
make a return to alcohol more difficult. He would have
received ReVera, which may have reduced the cravings for
alcohol. He could have received the support of fellowship
of an organization such as Alcoholics Anonymous. Medical,
group and individual therapies for PTSD would have been
initiated and his pre-mature death would never have taken
place. The greatest accolade for Franklin McDaniel
was the love that his children had for him.
The information contained in
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Last Update Saturday, 29-Dec-2012 14:57:06 EST